The Camerino School of Veterinary Medicine was established in the Papal States under the pontificate of Pope Leo XII, following the Constitution Quod divina sapientia of 1824, and the Ordinationes Sacrae Congregationis Studiorum of August 18, 1826. Initially, veterinary studies at Camerino were organized as a Low Veterinary School. This school, defined as second class, was founded within the medical faculty. 
With the unification of Italy, veterinary studies were reorganized according to a unified plan. By the Mamiani regulation of December 8, 1860, only Turin, Milan and (by Royal Decree of September 24, 1861) Naples were recognized as Higher Schools of Veterinary Medicine. All other schools (including Camerino) were defined as secondary schools. The Veterinary School of Camerino kept this name until 1882 when it was transformed into the Higher School of Veterinary Medicine (of which, however, only the first two years was activated) and aggregated with the free University of Camerino. 
The Royal Decree Boselli of January 29, 1891 established a single regulation for all veterinary schools in the Kingdom, but Perugia and Camerino were excluded from this regulation, as they were aggregated to free universities. In 1928 the course of study in Veterinary Medicine at Camerino became complete to cover all four years provided, and by a series of Royal Decrees provided, in 1930, with its own "statute," like the other higher schools of Veterinary Medicine. 
The Royal Decree of August 31, 1933 imposed a uniform curriculum on all Italian schools of Veterinary Medicine, transforming them, starting in 1934, into Faculties of Veterinary Medicine aggregated to Universities (in this case to that of Camerino). The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Camerino was abolished in 1958 following statehood. By Decree-Law 168 of May 9, 1989, 30 years later, as part of the University's four-year plan 1986/90, the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine was re-established. 
The Faculty, which, following the entry into force of the new Statute of the University of Camerino, changed its name to the School of Veterinary Medical Sciences and later merged with the School of Biosciences and Veterinary Medicine, currently runs the Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine, which represents the only educational reality of this specificity in the Marche Region; the three-year Bachelor's Degree Course in Safety of Livestock Production and Enhancement of Typical Foodstuffs of Animal Origin/Safety of Animal Production; the Schools of Specialization in Animal Health, Livestock Breeding and Production and in Hygiene and Control of Fishery and Aquaculture Products; Level I and II Master's Degrees; and training courses.

In 2011, the School of Veterinary Medical Sciences was recognized as meeting European educational standards with the approval of the Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine degree program by the EAEVE/FVE (ECOVE).